Thursday, March 06, 2014

Just Published: Protest and Propaganda: W. E. B. Du Bois, The Crisis, and American History

I am pleased to announce the publication of Protest and Propaganda: W. E. B. Du Bois, The Crisis, and American History, an essay collection I co-edited with UNC Wilmington art historian Amy Helene Kirschke.

As I indicated in a previous post, the book began as a conference panel at the American Historical Association annual meeting in San Diego in 2010, and evolved into the first ever volume that looks at the history of NAACP's The Crisis magazine and its relationship to W. E. B. Du Bois and 20th century American history. 

The Crisis is one of the most important virtually untapped archives of twentieth century American history. As this project unfolded, more of The Crisis became available online, so I would anticipate even more scholarship on the magazine and its 100+ year history in the years to come. 

Selected back issues of The Crisis are available through Google Books. Every issue from the first dozen years or so (1910-1922) are available as downloadable pdfs through the Modernist Journals Project, jointly sponsored by Brown University and the University of Tulsa. Also, volumes 25 and 26, spanning November 1922 through October 1923, are available through the University of Pennsylvania.

Here's a description of the volume from the University of Missouri Press book page:

In looking back on his editorship of Crisis magazine, W. E. B. Du Bois said, “We condensed more news about Negroes and their problems in a month than most colored papers before this had published in a year.” Since its founding by Du Bois in 1910, Crisis has been the primary published voice of the NAACP. Born in an age of Jim Crow racism, often strapped for funds, the magazine struggled and endured, all the while providing a forum for people of color to document their inherent dignity and proclaim their definitive worth as human beings.

As the magazine’s editor from 1910 until 1934, Du Bois guided the content and the aim of Crisis with a decisive hand. He ensured that each issue argued for civil rights, economic justice, and social equality, always framing America’s intractable color line in an international perspective. Du Bois benefited from a deep pool of black literary and artistic genius, whether by commissioning the visual creativity of Harlem Renaissance artists for Crisis covers or by publishing poems and short stories from New Negro writers. From North to South, from East to West, and even reaching across the globe, Crisis circulated its ideas and marshaled its impact far and wide. 

Building on the solid foundation Du Bois laid, subsequent editors and contributors covered issues vital to communities of color, such as access to resources during the New Deal era, educational opportunities related to the historic Brown decision, the realization of basic civil rights at midcentury, American aid to Africa and Caribbean nations, and the persistent economic inequalities of today’s global era.

Despite its importance, little has been written about the historical and cultural significance of this seminal magazine. By exploring how Crisis responded to critical issues, the essays in Protest and Propaganda provide the first well-rounded, in-depth look at the magazine's role and influence. The authors show how the essays, columns, and visuals published in Crisis changed conversations, perceptions, and even laws in the United States, thereby calling a fractured nation to more fully live up to its democratic creed. They explain how the magazine survived tremendous odds, document how the voices of justice rose above the clamor of injustice, and demonstrate how relevant such literary, journalistic, and artistic postures remain in a twenty-first-century world still in crisis.
Amy and I are very pleased to have collaborated with some noted scholars, including the University of Houston's Gerald Horne, a former prof of mine, historian of African American culture Shawn Leigh Alexander, and political scientist Bob Williams, who runs the fantastic web site.

Here's the table of contents:

Preface, Gerald Horne

The Crisis: A Record of the Darker Races: An Introduction, Shawn Leigh Alexander

Chapter 1: W. E. B. Du Bois and Positive Propaganda: A Philosophical Prelude to His Editorship of The Crisis, Robert W. Williams

Chapter 2: W. E. B. Du Bois as Print Propagandist, Amy Helene Kirschke and Phillip Luke Sinitiere

Chapter 3: Art in Crisis during the Du Bois Years, Amy Helene Kirschke

Chapter 4: “We Return Fighting”: The Great War and African American Women’s Short Fiction in The Crisis, 1917-1920, Barbara McCaskill

Chapter 5: W. E. B. Du Bois and The Crisis of Woman Suffrage, Garth E. Pauley

Chapter 6: The Crisis Children’s Page, The Brownies’ Book, and the Fantastic, Katharine Capshaw Smith

Chapter 7: God in Crisis: Race, Class, and Religion in the Harlem Renaissance, Edward J. Blum

Chapter 8: W. E. B. Du Bois’s Prophetic Propaganda: Religion and The Crisis, 1910-1934, Phillip Luke Sinitiere

Chapter 9: The Crisis Cover Girl: Lena Horne, Walter White, and the NAACP’s Representation of African American Femininity, Megan E. Williams

Chapter 10: The Crisis Responds to Public School Desegregation, Charles H. Ford and Jeffrey L. Littlejohn

Epilogue, Amy Helene Kirschke and Phillip Luke Sinitiere 

Thanks for reading! Place your orders here and here.

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Recollecting and Reconstructing the Past: Memoirs

“Writing memoir is a way to figure out who you used to be and how you got to be who you are.” (Abigail Thomas, Thinking About Memoir)

Over the last decade or so, I have taken a particular liking to memoirs. Intrigued by a few historians’ memoirs during the first few years of Ph.D. work—namely those of William McNeill and Philip Curtin—around the same time I was developing research and teaching fields in world history and African history, interest in the genre stuck. At the same time, as I was attempting to fashion myself into a historian of American religion, I came across John Boles’ edited collection Autobiographical Reflections on Southern Religious History as well as Albert Raboteau’s memoir A Sorrowful Joy, a gripping account of his journey into the Russian Orthodox faith. In the ensuing years, I found Randall Stephens’ recent thoughts (and blog post comments) on historians and memoirs illuminating. An abiding interest in historical memory and the act of commemoration has also oriented me in the direction of memoir. After reading Anthony Pinn's memoir this weekend and seeing John Fea's blog post about possibly writing a memoir of his speaking tours (which I really hope he publishes), I decided to put some thoughts in writing.

I’ve not studied memoirs from the perspective of literary criticism or the historical development of documenting one’s life. Simply put, I like a good story. And I suppose all along I secretly hoped reading memoirs would help to make me a better writer.

Since I found that I routinely recommend memoirs to people, a few years back I decided to start compiling a list of all the memoirs I’ve read over the last 10 years. You’ll find that list below.

As it happened, I had the good fortune to meet some of these memoirists—I spent some time with Albert Raboteau while in Princeton for a Jonathan Edwards conference way back in 2003 and I heard Alex Lemon speak a few years ago when I was on faculty at Sam Houston State University. Around the time I read Vinson Synan’s memoir I was able to conduct an interview with him on campus at Regent Divinity School to discuss John Osteen and the history of neopentecostalism in preparation for my book on Lakewood Church. Also, I’ve assigned some of these memoirs in my college classes the last couple of years. As I recall, students responded quite favorably to the books. In a class on American religion students read G. Willow Wilson’s transformation from atheist to Muslim in The Butterfly Mosque and in a world history course Samuel Broadnax’s account of his role as a WW 2 aviator provided insight into the Tuskegee Airmen. Last semester I assigned John Carlos’s memoir in a world history course; it was useful for understanding the politics of race, sports, and the Cold War era.

Here they are the memoirs in no particular order.

Wilbert Rideau, In the Place of Justice

Donald Miller, Blue Like Jazz

G. Willow Wilson, The Butterfly Mosque

Alex Lemon, Happy: A Memoir

Albert Raboteau, A Sorrowful Joy

Nicholas Wolterstorff, Lament for a Son

Mishna Wolff, I’m Down: A Memoir

Timothy Tyson, Blood Done Sign My Name

Francis Bok, Escape from Slavery

Mende Nazar, Slave: My True Story

Michael Muhammed Knight, Impossible Man

Michael Muhammad Knight, Why I am a Five Percenter

John Hope Franklin, Mirror to America

Julia Sheeres, Jesus Land: A Memoir

Jonathan Wilson-Hartgove, Free to be Bound

William Pickens, Bursting Bonds

Mark Naison, White Boy: A Memoir

Rachel Held Evans, A Year of Biblical Womanhood

Jan Vansina, Living with Africa

What memoirs have you read and enjoyed? What memoirs would you recommend? What memoirs have you assigned for classes or in a teaching setting?

Friday, November 01, 2013

Christians and the Color Line: Race and Religion after Divided by Faith

The 95 Theses for Christian Racial & Ethnic Unity are now all posted. And I'm happy to announce the book is out and available for purchase.

Here's more about the book, harvested from a previous post.

In Christians and the Color Line: Race and Religion after Divided by FaithRusty Hawkins and I co-edited essays that came out of the 2010 anniversary conference Rusty organized at Indiana Wesleyan on Michael Emerson and Christian Smith's book Divided by Faith: Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America (Oxford University Press, 2000). Read my posts about the conference here and here.

Here's a description of the volume from the book page at Oxford University Press:
Christians and the Color Line analyzes the complex entanglement of race and religion in the United States. Drawing on historical and contemporary examples of racialized religion, the essays in this volume consider the problem of race both in Christian congregations and in American society as a whole. 
Belying the notion that a post-racial America has arrived, congregations in the US are showing an unprecedented degree of interest in overcoming the deep racial divisions that exist within American Protestantism.  In one recent poll, for instance, nearly 70% of church leaders expressed a strong desire for their congregations to become racially and culturally diverse.  To date, reality has eluded this professed desire as fewer than 10% of American Protestant churches have actually achieved multiracial status. 

Employing innovative research from sociology, history, philosophy, and religious studies, the contributors to this volume use Michael Emerson and Christian Smith’s groundbreaking study Divided by Faith (Oxford, 2000) as their starting point to acknowledge important historical, sociological, and theological causations for racial divisions in Christian communities. Collectively, however, these scholars also offer constructive steps that Christians of all races might take to overcome the color line and usher in a new era of cross-racial engagement. 
Rusty and I collaborated across disciplinary lines with wonderful scholars and some great people. We are grateful to Michael Emerson for writing the Foreword and to Darryl Scriven for composing an insightful Theological Afterword for the volume.

Here's the Table of Contents:

Michael O. Emerson

J. Russell Hawkins & Phillip Luke Sinitiere

Chapter One
"Neoevangelicalism and the Problem of Race in Postwar America"
Miles S. Mullin, II

Chapter Two
"Healing the Mystical Body: Catholic Attempts to Overcome the Racial Divide in Chicago, 1930-1948"
Karen Joy Johnson

Chapter Three
"'Glimmers of Hope': Progressive Evangelicals and Racism, 1965-2000"
Brantley W. Gasaway

Chapter Four
"'Buttcheek to Buttcheek in the Pew': Interracial Relationalism in a Mennonite Congregation, 1957-2010"
Tobin Miller Shearer

Chapter Five
"Still Divided by Faith? Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America, 1977-2010"
Ryon J. Cobb

Chapter Six
"Worshipping to Stay the Same: Avoiding the Local to Maintain Solidarity"
Mark T. Mulder

Chapter Seven
"Beyond Body Counts: Sex, Individualism, and the Segregated Shape of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism"
Edward J. Blum

Chapter Eight
"Color-Conscious Structure-Blind Assimilation: How Asian American Christians Can Unintentionally Maintain the Racial Divide"
Jerry Z. Park

Chapter Nine
"Knotted Together: Identity and Community in a Multiracial Church"
Erica Ryu Wong

Chapter Ten
"Much Ado About Nothing? Rethinking the Efficacy of Multiracial Churches for Racial Reconciliation"
Korie L. Edwards

Theological Afterword
"The Call to Blackness in American Christianity"
Darryl Scriven

Thanks for reading!  Place your orders here and here.

Thursday, October 31, 2013

95 Theses for Christian Racial & Ethnic Unity: #95

Blackness is not a racial designation. Although race can sometimes be a marker of blackness, it need not be. The plight of black people and their collective experience illustrates the framework of blackness. Anyone of any race or nationality can engage in blackness, yet the most vested individuals are always those who have a personal interest in the outcome of racial, class, gender, and spiritual struggle. Blackness is a construction that presupposes solidarity with the downtrodden, the emiserated, the least in society, the dispossessed, the disenfranchised, and those who understand the world from the underside. Quite often these are the poorest among us. They are those who are powerless and have experienced generational subjugation in ways that do not allow them to easily emerge from the cycle. Blackness reflects those whom Jesus said that he came to set free. As such, blackness is the frontier for American Christians because it is a call that reflects what it means to deny oneself, take up one’s cross, and follow Christ in a market economy. Consequently, when evangelical efforts toward integration and multiracial churches fail, the unrecognized truth is that in a consumerist culture one cannot simultaneously repair the racial breach among Christians while retaining unearned privilege and embodying a faith that is complicit in the oppression of the population with whom one intends to reconcile. Either one denies him or herself, or he or she does not. It cannot be both ways.

Darryl Scriven, “Theological Afterword: The Call to Blackness in American Christianity,” in Christians and the Color Line: Race and Religion after Divided by Faith, eds. J. Russell Hawkins and Phillip Luke Sinitiere (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 266-267.

[Read the Introduction to 95 Theses for Christian Racial & Ethnic Unity here.]